AI-based solutions have been long used by business-to-business (B2B) businesses to automate routine tasks in operations and logistics. But historically, the first business transformation involved a standardizing process
. Daugherty and Wilson
 call this era the first wave
and was ushered by the first Industrial Revolution with Fordism
, and Toyotism
Succeeding, B2B transformation bears a second wave
, consisting of automated processes
that began in the 1970s and reached its peak in the 1990s. This era emerged with the business process reengineering movement, thanks to advances in information technology . This was propelled by the ubiquity of computers, large databases, and the automation of numerous back-office tasks. Many people were replaced by machines.
Currently, Daugherty and Wilson , invoke a third wave
, involving adaptive processes
. This wave builds on the previous two, yet, is a completely new way of doing business. It is allowing businesses to adapt to people's behaviors, preferences, and needs at a given moment. It is powered by real-time data rather than by a pre-organized sequence of steps.
They envision that when this last wave is fully optimized, it will allow B2B and B2C businesses to take full advantage of AI. They will be able to produce individualized products and services which are satisfying beyond the capabilities of the mass-production of the past and deliver more profit.  A business model pioneered by Japanese auto manufacturer Toyota in the 1960s. It includes just-in-time production, giving greater autonomy to work teams, constant monitoring and improvement of processes, and constant quality control, all of which are designed to reduce waste or unnecessary effort. It differs from Taylorism and Fordism by placing more onus on multiskilled and proficient labor working in teams .